idealized influence (i.e., being an exemplary role model);
intellectual stimulation (i.e., challenging existing norms and inciting ideas for change);
inspirational motivation (i.e., developing and communicating a vision);
individual consideration (i.e., attending to the individual needs of followers)
(Bass and Riggio, 2006)
A study by Vallée and Bloom in 2005 found that the four aspects of transformational leadership were characteristics of the college coaches they interviewed.
Just as I was reading about transformational leadership and coaching I also came across this slide from Jean Cote at what I think was a conference for UK level 4 coaches. In respect of the notion of the 'intellectual stimulation' aspect of transformational leadership, Cote noted a list of hallmarks of transformational coaching.
Vygotsky's notion of internalization which was critiqued and re-defined by researchers such as Bakhtin due to connotations within the term internalization related to 'transmission, transferal of knowledge, that is also reactional in nature. These authors preferred the term 'appropriation' which assumed learning to be reciprocal and social resulting in the active construction in knowledge.
This term is very appropriate in supporting notions of transformation as opposed to transmission because of the links between appropriation and transformational coaching styles that encourage debate, discussion and reflection and empower learners.
Vallée, C.N., & Bloom, G.A. (2005). Building a successful university sport program: Key and common elements of expert coaches.Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 17(3), 179-196.